In the news- On August 15, 2022, India will celebrate its 75th Independence Day, it is important to remember the popular slogans of the Indian independence movement.
Details of Popular Slogans-
Let it be ‘Jai Hind!’ or “Vande Mataram!” most of the popular patriotic slogans thrown around today probably have their origins in the Indian independence movement. Here are some of the popular slogans used during India’s independence:
Jai Hind’ by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose –
- It was popularized by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose as a greeting for soldiers of his Indian National Army (INA), who fought alongside Netaji’s ally Japan in World War II. But according to some accounts, Netaji did not invent the slogan.
- In his 2014 book, “Lengendotes of Hyderabad”, former civil servant Narendra Luther said that the term was coined by Zain-ul Abideen Hasan, the son of a Hyderabad collector, left to study in Germany. There, he meets Bose and ends up abandoning his studies to join the INA.
- Khan was instructed by Bose to seek a salute or military salute for INA soldiers, a slogan that was not caste or community specific, given the INA’s pan-Indian base.
- He heard two Rajput soldiers greeting each other with the slogan “Jai Ramji ki”. This led to the idea of ’Jai Hindustan ki’ in his mind and it was later shortened to ‘Jai Hind’, whose term means ‘Long live India’ or a call to fight for India.
‘Tum mujhe khoon do, main tumhe aazadi doonga’ by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose-
- According to the book ‘Subhas Chandra Bose: The Nationalist and the Commander – What Netaji Did, What Netaji Said’ Edited by Vanitha Ramchandani, the slogan originated in a speech given by Netaji in Myanmar, then called Burma, on July 4, 1944.
- Netaji uttered this slogan (Give me blood and I promise you freedom) to encourage Indians to take advantage of the opportunity presented by World War II.
‘Vande Mataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterji –
- The term refers to a sense of respect expressed towards the homeland.
- In 1870, the Bengali novelist Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote a song that would take on national stature, but would also be considered divisive by some.
- Written in Bengali, the song titled ‘Vande Mataram‘ would not be introduced into the public sphere before the publication of the novel Anandamath in 1882of which the song is a part.
- The novel Anandmath, set in the early 1770s against the backdrop of the Fakir-Sannyasi rebellion against the British in Bengal, came at a time when Bengal agrarian crisis when the region was hit by three successive famines.
- After the end of British rule, the song was in contention to be the national anthem, but was criticized by some and ended up become the national song instead.
‘Inquilab Zindabad’ by Maulana Hasrat Mohani –
- ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ (Long live the revolution) was first used by Maulana Hasrat Mohani in 1921.
- Mohani (1875-1951) was born in a town called Mohan in Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh.
- Hasrat was his pseudonym (takhallus) like a urdu revolutionary poet, which also became his identity as a political leader.
- Hasrat Mohani was a labor leader, scholar, poet and also one of the founders of the Communist Party of India in 1925.
- Along with Swami Kumaranand – also involved in the Indian communist movement – Mohani first raised the demand for complete independence or “Poorna Swaraj”, at the Ahmedabad session of Congress in 1921.
- He was later elected a member of the Constituent Assembly and was also a member of the editorial board of the Constitution with Dr. BR Ambedkar.
- His focus on Inquilab was inspired by his urge to fight social and economic inequality, as well as colonialism.
- Before Mohani coined this slogan, the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia made the idea of revolution the symbol of struggle for oppressed nationalities around the world.
- It was from mid-1920s that this slogan became a battle cry of Bhagat Singh and his Naujawan Bharat Sabha, as well as its Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).
- This slogan achieved great popularity when he and BK Dutt dropped bombs in the Assembly on April 8, 1929, and shouted it.
‘Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna’ by Bismil Azimabadi –
- “Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil men hai, dekhna hai zor kitna bazu-e-qatil men hai” (Our hearts now yearn to die for a good cause, that we will see what strength the arms of killers possess).
- These are the first two lines of a poem written by Bismil AzimabadiBihar freedom fighter and poet, after the 1921 Jallianwalah Bagh massacre in Amritsar, Punjab.
- The the lines were popularized by Ram Prasad Bismilanother revolutionary.
- They transmit a deep desire to confront an enemy, a spirit seen in the manner of Bismil, an Poet and Urdu revolutionary, was part of major events that lifted the spirits of other freedom fighters at the time.
- He was part of Kakori’s train robbery, a successful and ambitious operation in which a train full of British goods and money was robbed for Indian fighters to buy arms.
“Do or Die” by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi –
- In 1942, with the start of World War II and the failure of Stafford Cripps Missions – which promised India only “dominion status”‘ where he would still have to pledge allegiance to the King of England – it was realized that the freedom movement needed to be intensified.
- On August 8, 1942, the All India Congress Committee met at Gowalia Tank Maidan (August Kranti Maidan) in Bombay.
- Gandhi addressed thousands of people after the meeting to explain the way forward.
- He then told the people what they should do: “Here is a mantra, a short one, that I give to you. Imprint it on your hearts, so that with each breath you give it expression. The mantra is: “Do or die”. Either we’ll liberate India or we’ll die trying; we will not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery.
- Later, in Bihar and UP, a full-fledged rebellion began, with slogans such as “Thana jalao”, “Station phoonk do” demanding the burning down of police stations and railway stations, and “Angrez bhaag gaya hai” (Englishman ran away).
‘Quit India’ by Yusuf Meherally –
- As Gandhi sounded the bugle of ‘Quit India’, the slogan was coined by Yusuf Meherally, a socialist and trade unionist who also served as mayor of Mumbai.
- A few years ago, in 1928, Meherally had also coined the slogan “Simon Go Back” to protest against the Simon Commission.
- According to Saad Ali, who was part of the Quit India movement, Meherally was a member of the Socialist Congress Party who was active in the anti-government protests.